> Home > Domains > Health and Physical Education > Approaches

Approaches to Health and Physical Education

This advice provides terms, definitions and examples to offer a starting point for implementing the Health and Physical Education standards. An outcome of this process should be a school-based curriculum that indicates a consideration of the local students (needs and abilities), teachers (expertise and interest), school charter and resources (school and community).

Level 1 | Level 2 | Level 3 | Level4 | Level 5 | Level6 | Show all

Level 1

Movement and physical activity - Level 1

Refer to Level 1 Movement and physical activity for the full standard.

Excerpts from the standard Terms and definitions/examples

perform basic motor skills and movement patterns

Basic motor skills – a general term for fundamental movements (locomotor, non manipulative and manipulative) that students can use to enjoyably and confidently participate in physical activities such as: running, hopping skipping, catching, throwing, kicking, rolling, balancing, twisting and turning.

Movement patterns – the linking of a number of skills or components of skills to create a movement, such as starting, stopping, springing, leaping, changing direction and speed, responding to rhythm, beat, music and words.

(See Assessment Maps – Level 1 Basic motor skills)

range of environments

indoor, outdoor, aquatic

regularly engage in periods of moderate to vigorous physical activity

It is recommended that children and young people participate in at least 60 minutes (and up to several hours) of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity every day.
(Commonwealth of Australia, 2004, Australia's Physical Activity Recommendations for Children and Young People, Department of Health and Ageing)

Physical education classes should provide a range of opportunities for students to participate in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, which contributes to the achievement of this recommendation.

Moderate Intensity – a level of activity that produces a slight increase in students' breathing and heart rate. Students are able to talk comfortably whilst participating in activity of moderate intensity. Typical activities of moderate intensity include walking, active play, light jogging, recreational swimming, sports and games.

Vigorous Intensity – a level of activity that produces a large increase in students' breathing and heart rate. The perceived effort would be hard and students would find it difficult to talk freely whilst participating in activity of vigorous intensity. Typical activities include brisk walking, running, lap swimming, cycling and dance.

Note: Vigorous intensity activities should not last for long periods for students working towards the Level 1 standards and periods of rest should be allocated.

use simple vocabulary to describe movement, the physical responses of their bodies to activity and their feelings about participation in physical activity

For example, students are able to use terminology such as:

  • fast/slow, above/below or front/behind when describing their movement
  • hot, tired, out of breath, puffed and sweaty to describe their bodies' responses to physical activity
  • excited, scared, happy, nervous to describe their feelings about participation.

follow rules and procedures and share equipment and space safely

For example, students:

  • are able to respond to commands such as go, stop, look and listen
  • display appropriate sporting behaviour such as taking turns and no pushing or rough play
  • consider the safety of others
  • respect equipment
  • follow the rules of minor games
  • understand the need to drink when participating in physical activity
  • always warm up and cool down
  • collect and return equipment
  • use equipment for its intended purpose
  • use playground equipment safely.

(See Assessment Maps – Level 1 Basic motor skills)

Level 2

Movement and physical activity - Level 2

Refer to Level 2 Movement and physical activity for the full standard.

Excerpts from the standard Terms and definitions/examples

demonstrate basic motor skills and some more complex skills

Basic motor skills – a general term for fundamental movements (locomotor, non manipulative and manipulative) that students can use to enjoyably and confidently participate in physical activities such as: running, hopping, jumping, skipping, catching, throwing, kicking, rolling, balancing, twisting and turning.

More complex skills – for example, leaping, dodging, the over-arm throw, dribbling and striking balls, cart wheeling and hand standing.

(See Assessment Maps – Level 2 Gymnastics and Level 2 Locomotor and manipulative skills)

combine motor skills and movement patterns during individual and group activities

Movement pattern – the linking of a number of skills or components of skills to create a movement.

For example, students:

  • combine a lay out and log roll in gymnastics
  • combine the skills of the run and leap to jump over an obstacle, such as in a game of leap the creek
  • experiment with different actions of the body, and consider the effect of these actions on running, jumping, leaping and dodging efficiently such as running with arms folded across the chest or jumping with legs held straight
  • combine arm and leg movements to move through water on the front and back for 10 metres
  • demonstrate treading water and floating.

demonstrate control when participating in locomotor activities requiring change of speed, direction and level

Locomotor activities – activities that allow movement of the body from one place to another in general space.

Speed is linked to the movement concepts of effort and time. It can refer to fast movements such as fleeing from someone or slow controlled efforts such as balances.

Direction is linked to the movement concept of space awareness, which is where the body moves. Directions can include; up or down, forward or backward, right or left and clockwise or anticlockwise.

Level defines the body’s relationship to the floor. Level can be classified as high or low.

Low level activities could include moving close to the floor such as crawling, crab or seal walking.

High level activities involve a greater distance from the floor such as jumping, climbing or activities on a balance bench or bar.

(See Assessment Maps – Level 2 Gymnastics)

create and perform simple rhythmical movement sequences in response to stimuli

Rhythmical movement – involves motion that possesses regularity and a predictable pattern such as dance or jumping rope.

Stimuli – for example: colours, music, commands, clapping, animals or objects. For example, students:
  • follow and repeat a series of simple movement rhythms such as those used in social, cultural or creative dances, gymnastic and artistic ribbon routines
  • perform simple dance movements to a variety of music with different rhythms
  • work with a partner to create a simple dance or movement sequence in response to specific music or theme such as animals.

regularly engage in sessions of moderate to vigorous physical activity

It is recommended that children and young people participate in at least 60 minutes (and up to several hours) of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity every day.
(Commonwealth of Australia, 2004, Australia's Physical Activity Recommendations for Children and Young People, Department of Health and Ageing)

Physical education classes should provide a range of opportunities for students to participate in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, which contributes to the achievement of this recommendation.

Moderate Intensity – a level of activity that produces a slight increase in students' breathing and heart rate. Students are able to talk comfortably whilst participating in activity of moderate intensity. Typical activities of moderate intensity include walking, active play, light jogging, recreational swimming, sports and games.

Vigorous Intensity – a level of activity that produces a large increase in students' breathing and heart rate. The perceived effort would be hard and students would find it difficult to talk freely whilst participating in activity of vigorous intensity. Typical activities include brisk walking, running, lap swimming, cycling and dance.

Note: Vigorous intensity activities should not last for long periods for students working towards the Level 2 standard and periods of rest should be allocated.

describe the link between physical activity and health

For example, students:

  • can describe some benefits of participating in physical activity such as for healthy functioning of the heart and lungs and development of strong bones and muscles, makes you feel good and provides opportunity to be with and play with friends
  • know how much daily activity is recommended for children
  • learn that physical activity uses energy
  • understand that when you huff and puff this is good for heart and lung health.

explain the contribution rules and procedures make to the safe conduct of games and activities

For example, students:

  • identify the rules of familiar games
  • suggest reasons a rule is needed
  • explain why we need rules in the playground or at the swimming pool.

use equipment and space safety

For example, students:

  • use equipment safely around others such as placing both hands on a bat
  • describe clothing that is appropriate for participation in games and activities
  • make safe and responsible choices
  • respect the personal space of others.

Level 3

Movement and physical activity - Level 3

Refer to Level 3 Movement and physical activity for the full standard.

Excerpts from the standard Terms and definitions/examples

perform a broad range of complex motor skills

Complex skills – for example; leaping, dodging, the over-arm throw, dribbling and striking balls, cart wheeling and hand standing.

For example, students:

  • develop competency in skills such as leaping, dodging, cart wheeling and hand standing
  • increase their range of manipulative skills such as throwing, catching, kicking, dribbling, jumping rope and striking a ball with a racquet
  • can strike a moving ball with a bat, demonstrating side-on body position, back swing and follow through
  • can dribble a ball with their hand or foot through and around markers
  • demonstrate propulsion through the water on the front and back using freestyle, backstroke, breaststroke and survival backstroke for 10 to 20 metres
  • participate in activities that encourage manipulative skills such as running while bouncing a ball or running while turning a skipping rope
  • perform shoulder rolls on a flat surface and a backward roll down an inclined surface.

(See Assessment Maps – Level 3 Ball skills)

demonstrate a wide variety of motor skills and apply them to basic, sport-specific situations

Basic, sport specific situations include: modified major games, minor games, play-based activities, dance, gymnastics and swimming.

Modified major games – games with modified rules, equipment, and playing field, length of game or numbers on a team such as modified netball or basketball. For example, students:

  • use the skill of the forehand strike in a modified game of rounders
  • apply to skills of ball bounce, throw and catch in a modified game of basketball
  • apply the components of the run and leap to a modified version of long jump
  • throw a ball to a moving partner or position to receive a ball in a game situation
  • work cooperatively with others to move a ball among team members in a game
  • performs modified athletic throws such as discus and shot put.

(See Assessment Maps – Level 3 Ball skills in games and activities)

create and perform coordinated movement sequences that contain a variety of motor skills and movement patterns

For example, students:

  • control and sequence their movements to perform jumps for height or distance
  • work with a partner to create and perform a simple dance sequence
  • work with a partner or small group to create and perform a variety of gymnastic skills
  • create and perform to stimuli (music, rhythm or words) movements that vary in shape, size, direction, level, speed, tension or flow

participate regularly in physical activities for the purpose of improving skill and health

It is recommended that children and young people participate in at least 60 minutes (and up to several hours) of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity every day. (Commonwealth of Australia, 2004, Australia's Physical Activity Recommendations for Children and Young People, Department of Health and Ageing)

Physical education classes should provide a range of opportunities for students to participate in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, which contributes to the achievement of this recommendation.

Moderate Intensity – a level of activity that produces a slight increase in students' breathing and heart rate. Students are able to talk comfortably whilst participating in activity of moderate intensity. Typical activities of moderate intensity include walking, active play, light jogging, recreational swimming, sports and games etc

Vigorous Intensity – a level of activity that produces a large increase in students' breathing and heart rate. The perceived effort would be hard and students would find it difficult to talk freely whilst participating in activity of vigorous intensity. Typical activities include brisk walking, running, lap swimming, cycling and dance.

Note: Vigorous intensity activities should not last for long periods for students working towards the Level 3 standards and periods of rest should be allocated.

Improve skill and health: For example, students:

  • describe why it is important to participate regularly in physical activity
  • recognise the need to participate in physical activity everyday for at least 60 minutes
  • keep a diary of activities participated in over a week and record their feelings about participation
  • participate in physical activities that make them huff and puff.

identify and describe the components of health-related fitness

For example, students:

  • describe the term fitness in relation to health and what people do to be fit and healthy
  • identify the components of health related fitness such as heart-lung fitness, strength and flexibility
  • identify activities people participate in to stay fit and healthy
  • participate in a physical activity program designed to promote fitness
  • classify ball games according to the aspects of health-related fitness that can be developed via the game such as heart and lung fitness
  • perform a sequence of gymnastic skills that demonstrate aspects of health-related fitness such as flexibility or strength.

begin to use basic games’ tactics

For example, students:

  • are introduced to the concepts of attack and defence
  • follow the rules of a game
  • describe the roles of various positions
  • display a ready stance and a defence stance
  • are able to dodge or change directions quickly
  • know the best throwing technique in target games
  • begin to understand positioning relationships between key game factors such as competitors, targets, boundaries and the ball, including an understanding of the strategy of hitting the ball away from fielders in a striking game
  • become more strategic in games, for example, moving to position, use of space to receive a pass.

work with others to achieve goals in both cooperative and competitive sporting and games’ situations

Cooperative situations include: initiative activities, team building activities, team sports and games, listening games.

Competitive situations include: games, individual challenges, team sports, team challenges.

For example, students work towards achieving goals in areas such as:

  • working with a partner or small group to design a new game
  • developing cooperative skills when participating in team building activities
  • following rules to achieve team goals
  • observing a partner perform a skill and help them to achieve a better performance
  • working cooperatively with others to move the ball among team members in a game.

explain the concept of fair play

For example, students:

  • describe characteristics of being fair and fair play
  • display respect for all
  • display respect for equipment
  • share equipment, space and facilities
  • explain why it is important to have no put downs or criticism
  • play within the rules
  • acknowledge an opponent's good play.

respect roles of officials

For example, students:

  • consider the different roles taken on by officials such as umpire, scorer and time keeper
  • accept the umpire’s or another official’s decisions
  • encourage team mates to display appropriate conduct towards other officials, players, coaches/captains and spectators.

follow safety principles in games and activities

For example, students:

  • follow established routines
  • wear appropriate clothing
  • follow instructions, rules and expectations for the specific game or setting
  • can describe safety equipment for different activities or games such as wearing a helmet when riding a bike
  • recognise and report hazards.


Back to Top

 Health promotion and knowledge - Level 3

Refer to Level 3 Health promotion and knowledge for the full standard.

Excerpts from the standard Terms and definitions/examples

stages of human development

For example, conception, pre-natal growth, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age.

(See Assessment Map – Level 3 Lifespan)

basic concepts of identity

For example, students explore the following questions:

  • Who am I?
  • What are my special abilities?
  • Which groups do I belong to?
  • What makes me feel good about myself?
  • How can I help others feel good about themselves? 
  • What makes me feel bad about myself?
  • How does this relate to others?

strategies to maintain and support their self-worth

For example, students:

  • begin to use simple decision making strategies
  • discuss the importance of treating themselves and others with respect
  • discuss the impact of being included and excluded in group activities and develop strategies for including others in activities
  • begin to use positive self talk
  • identify behaviours that are considered to be bullying and discuss ways to deal with bullying behaviour.

basic safety skills and strategies methods for recognising and avoiding harmful situations

For example, students:
  • identify a network of people they can trust
  • undertake a safety audit at home or at school
  • develop simple action plans for emergency situations such as pool rescue, snake or spider bite, being lost in the bush or drug-related incident
  • map traffic hazards near the school
  • identify road safety strategies such as:
    • alternative ways to cross the road safely at traffic lights, pedestrian crossing or school crossing
    • ways to ’be seen and be safe‘ such as wearing bright clothing and having a flag on the back of a bicycle
  • discuss lures used to attract children into potentially dangerous situations
  • identify potentially unsafe situations such as walking alone or opening doors at home to strangers
  • explore strategies to access help such as use of the 000 phone number and recognition of safety houses
  • begin to explore the relationship between safety, risk and challenge.

physical and social components in the local environment that contribute to wellbeing

Physical components
For example, students:

  • discuss the negative health effects of poor quality air, water, food and soil
  • identify SunSmart playing areas
  • examine availability of recreational facilities, parks, and gardens in the local community
  • examine traffic safety around the school including the use the use of crossings and bike tracks
  • neighbourhood safety

Social components

For example, students:

  • identify who looks after our health, such as family members, school community, doctors, dentists, community health initiatives, etc
  • discuss the benefits of belonging to clubs or sporting groups in the community
  • discuss how feeling safe at school or in the community is important for well-being.

health services and products

For example, students:

  • identify facilities in the community that enable us to be physically active such as gyms, swimming pools and play grounds
  • discuss occupations which keep us healthy such as doctors, dentists, ambulance officer and nurses
  • discuss the role of various products to keep us healthy such as sunscreen, toothpaste and a bike helmet.

healthy eating practices

For example, students:

  • discuss what is a nutritionally balanced diet
  • describe why it is important to eat a healthy diet
  • describe some functions of food such as for energy, growth and to keep our bodies working properly
  • begin to using a food selection model such as the Healthy Living Pyramid to classify foods and assess eating practices. 

physiological, social, cultural and economic reasons for people's food choices

For example, students could identify how the following factors influence food choice:

  • our moods, emotions and stress
  • our nutritional requirements and health
  • family and friends
  • special dietary needs
  • the media
  • food labelling
  • culture
  • religious beliefs
  • cost.

Level 4

Movement and physical activity - Level 4

Refer to Level 4 Movement and physical activity for the full standard.

Excerpts from the standard Terms and definitions/examples

perform confidently and efficiently in a range of movement environments (indoor, outdoor and aquatic)

For example, students:

  • consistently perform a range of skills with balance, precision and fluid movements
  • adapt skills in response to environmental changes such as bouncing a ball on different surfaces
  • combine a series of skills such as running, jumping and throwing in a game
  • perform a dance or gymnastic sequence that demonstrates correct technique and control
  • meet the requirements of the Victorian Water Safety Certificate.

refine basic and complex motor skills in increasingly complex games and activities

Complex games and activities – activities or games with numerous or complex rules that may require an advanced degree of skill, communication, cooperation, decision making , observation and problem solving. 

Modified major games – games with modified rules, equipment, and playing field, length of game or numbers on a team such as modified netball or basketball.

For example, students:

  • while practising for a long jump or triple jump experiment with different take-off and flight techniques that lead to an improved technique
  • perform rescues in an aquatic situation
  • developed motor skills to a point where they can run or swim for distance, controlling pace and breathing
  • apply the principles of force and speed when running and jumping for distance and height, such as in a leap in dance or a lay-up in basketball
  • apply principles of movement, including the transfer of weight and the angle of trajectory in activities such as controlling speed, distance and direction when returning a fielded ball or when making a pass
  • display increasing precision and accuracy in target games.

maintain regular participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity and monitor exercise intensity

It is recommended that children and young people participate in at least 60 minutes (and up to several hours) of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity every day.
(Commonwealth of Australia, 2004, Australia's Physical Activity Recommendations for Children and Young People, Department of Health and Ageing)

Physical education classes should provide a range of opportunities for students to participate in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, which contributes to the achievement of this recommendation.

Moderate Intensity – a level of activity that produces a slight increase in students' breathing and heart rate. Students are able to talk comfortably whilst participating in activity of moderate intensity. Typical activities of moderate intensity include walking, active play, light jogging, recreational swimming, sports and games etc

Vigorous Intensity – a level of activity that produces a large increase in students' breathing and heart rate. The perceived effort would be hard and students would find it difficult to talk freely whilst participating in activity of vigorous intensity. Typical activities include brisk walking, running, lap swimming, cycling and dance.

Note: Vigorous intensity activities should not last for long periods for students working towards the Level 4 standards and periods of rest should be allocated.

Monitor exercise intensity: For example, students:

  • participate in a variety of physical activities during physical education and sport lessons
  • monitor exercise intensity by recording heart rate/pulse, rate perceived exertion (RPE) and breathing rates
  • keep a diary of physical activity participation
  • describe the body’s reaction to moderate and vigorous physical activity.

explain the process of improving health-related fitness

For example, students:
  • describe the term health-related fitness
  • identify the components of health related fitness such as cardio-respiratory fitness, strength and flexibility
  • participate in a physical activity program designed to develop a component of health-related fitness
  • identify personal strengths and weaknesses in health related fitness
  • understand the basic principles of training such as, F.I.T.T (Frequency, Intensity, Type and Time)
  • describe the benefits of participating in physical activity
  • create movement sequences/circuits of physical activities to develop components of health related fitness

effectively use strategic thinking and work with more- and less-skilled peers to improve game performance

Strategic thinking is the thinking process that allows students to achieve game objectives by using their understanding of games and problem solving strategies to develop team game plans and to enhance their performance when striving to meet games- based challenges.

For example, students:

  • demonstrate, with a partner or small group, a sequence of skills leading to scoring a goal or hitting a target
  • make decisions and execute skills such as closing up space by placing themselves in a position to prevent or intercept a pass, or defend effectively against an opponent one-on-one
  • explain the rationale for particular strategies and rules in team games and sports
  • identify people who can help improve their game and sport skills
  • work with a partner or small team to develop strategies to improve their performance

work independently to improve performance

For example, students:

  • understand the role of practice in learning and refining skills
  • analyse a video of their performance by identifying strengths and weaknesses and devise strategies to improve skills
  • identify a goal for improving performance and suggest strategies to achieve this goal.

evaluate the performance of a partner and provide constructive feedback based on performance criteria

For example, students:

  • observe a partner and assess their performance using specific criteria such as a checklist or rubric
  • identify the components of the skill being executed (such as the run-up, take-off, flight and landing in long jump) and can describe the attributes that make for a good performance
  • provide feedback to a partner identifying strengths and areas for improvement, this may include suggesting strategies for improvement
  • begin to 'coach' a partner or small group.

(See Assessment Maps – Level 4 Evaluating performance in long jump)

describe and analyse various roles required in competitive sports

For example, students:

  • participate in a range of roles required in competitive sports such as player umpire, captain, coach, scorer or selector
  • describe the contribution or these roles to the conduct of the competition
  • explore and discuss the responsibilities of these roles in promoting fair play, inclusiveness and equity
  • reflect on their strengths and weaknesses in performing these roles.

(See Assessment Maps – Level 4 Roles in basketball)

work in a group to create a game, and establish rules and procedures for its safe conduct

For example, students:

  • work with others to create a game using specific equipment or skills (such as catching, throwing and the dodge)
  • identify the object of the game, number of players, rules, scoring, length of playing time, equipment, how you win and any age restrictions
  • play the game following the rules which have been established
  • teach their game to another group
  • modify their game based on feedback from others.


Back to Top

Health promotion and knowledge - Level 4

Refer to Level 4 Health promotion and knowledge for the full standard.

Excerpts from the standard Terms and definitions/examples

identify the likely physical, social and emotional changes that occur during puberty

For example, students:

  • learn about the transition from between life stages with a focus on puberty
  • identify male physical features that undergo change during puberty such as the growth spurt commencing, growth of the reproductive organs, pubic hair and muscles, voice deepens and shoulders broaden
  • identify female physical features that undergo change during puberty such as the growth spurt commencing, the growth of breasts and pubic hair, the hips widen, the onset of menstruation and vaginal discharge
  • discuss the similarities and differences between the development of boys and girls
  • identify that there are differences in the rates of development and that this is normal
  • discuss feelings about being 'later' or 'earlier' in developing at puberty
  • identify strategies related to the management of physical changes associated with puberty such as increased sweat, menstruation and wet dreams
  • learn about the structure and function of the male and female reproductive systems
  • explore myths and beliefs about changes associated with puberty
  • identify and investigate different sources of information about and support for sexual development
  • link the physical changes that are part of sexual maturation with changes in feelings and relationships
  • examine what are moods and what causes them
  • discuss emotions associated with puberty such as feelings of loneliness, confusion, irritability, self-consciousness and embarrassment
  • examine their relationships and how they may have changed over time
  • explore roles and responsibilities which emerge during puberty
  • discuss how puberty may change relationships with family and friends.

(See Assessment Maps – Level 4 Transitions)

identify and discuss the validity of the ways in which people define their own and other people’s identity

For example, students explore:

  • What is identity?
  • What factors define identity, such as gender, race, religion and socio-economic status?
  • Are these valid or accurate ways of defining who we are?
  • What are valid ways of recognising who someone really is?
  • What other factors influence how we define someone’s identity, such as the role of the media and advertising?
  • What is stereotyping and why does it exist?
  • When might aspects of identity be in conflict such as the differences between home versus school?
  • What strategies can be used when aspects of identity are in conflict?

describe actions they can take if they feel unsafe at home, school and in the community

For example, students:

  • discuss the right to feel safe
  • identify characteristics of safe and unsafe situations
  • discuss potential places and situations which could promote feelings of being unsafe
  • identify people they can go to when feeling unsafe
  • explore possible strategies such as avoidance, negotiation, confiding, seeking shelter
  • develop an action plan to implement when they feel unsafe.

describe the physical, social and emotional dimensions of health

In 1946 the World Health Organisation defines health as ‘a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease for infirmity.’ (WHO, accessed from www.who.int/about/definition/en/  April 2007) For example, students:
  • identify characteristics associated with being healthy such as being physically active, getting enough sleep and rest, having a positive sense of self worth and having friends
  • recognise that health has physical, social and emotional dimensions
  • discuss how the dimensions of health are portrayed in the media
  • compare personal views on health with others outside the school community
  • reflect on how views of health may vary for people of different ages, cultures and disabilities
  • discuss who are good role models for health
  • discuss why it is important to be physically, socially and emotionally healthy
  • discuss barriers that may prevent health.

establish health goals and plan strategies for improving their personal health

For example, students:

  • consider what it means to them to be healthy
  • reflect on aspects of their personal health that could be improved or maintained
  • design strategies to achieve an improvement in their personal health
  • compare and discuss the strategies identified with other students.

describe a range of health services, products and information

For example, students:

  • investigate a range of health services and products that can be used to meet a specific health need or concern, such as the use of helmets and bicycle paths to promote bicycle safety
  • identify health services in the local community, including what they provide and who can access them
  • identify where they can get information on health issues
  • discuss the reliability of sources of health information.

explain physiological, social, cultural and economic reasons for food choices

For example, students explain how the following factors influence food choice:

  • physiological factors such as allergies to peanuts, wheat or gluten or the need for a specific diet that is low in fat or sugar free
  • social factors such as eating food in different social settings such as with  family, peers or at school
  • cultural factors such as how food is prepared and served, when it is eaten and what is considered as acceptable to eat in specific cultures or religious  influences such as celebrations like Christmas or Hanukkah, fasting practices like Ramadan and observance of food laws like Kosher or Halal
  • economic reasons such as the affordability of food and the impact of advertising on what we purchase.

describe food selection models

For example, students:

  • use food selection models such as the Health Living Pyramid or the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating to classify foods and make decisions about food choices.

prepare and store food hygienically

For example, students can describe strategies for preparing and storing food hygienically such as:

  • the need to wash hands or in some situations use gloves
  • using clean utensils and equipment
  • storing food at the correct temperature personal hygiene practices used during food preparation
  • the role of use by dates on food products.

Level 5

Movement and physical activity - Level 5

Refer to Level 5 Movement and physical activity for the full standard.

Excerpts from the standard Terms and definitions/examples

proficiently perform complex movement and manipulative skills

Proficiency means that the skill is almost automatic. For example, students:

  • focus on opponents and still perform skill
  • perform movements that seem effortless and can be reproduced in a variety of situations
  • apply biomechanical principles to improve task performance.

Manipulative skills are developed when a student controls an object such as a bat or ball. For example, students:

  • demonstrate the correct stance, grip and swing in a range of striking sports
  • adapt throwing technique to cater for type of equipment, distances, speed and accuracy.

Movement skills are the skills we require to participate in a range of movement, including walking, running swimming, fleeing, pursuing, leaping, turning and dodging. For example, students:

  • perform a variety of dance styles and/or gymnastic skills
  • swim for continuous distance of 150 metres, changing between freestyle, breaststroke, backstroke and survival backstroke
  • vary running movement patterns to cater for sprinting, hurdling and distance running

measure their own fitness and physical activity levels

For example, students:

  • explore views about fitness by interviewing family members and friends
  • identify components of health-related and performance-related fitness
  • measure and evaluate aspects of their fitness using a variety of fitness tests
  • suggest strategies for improving an aspect of their fitness
  • are able to identify the recommended amount of physical activity for their age-group as outlined in the Australia’s Physical Activity Recommendations for Children and Young People
  • are able to describe the characteristics of moderate and vigorous physical activity
  • describe the physical, social, mental and emotional benefits regular participation in physical activity
  • use strategies such as pedometers or activity diaries to measure and evaluate their own physical activity levels
  • develop and implement a plan to increase their participation in physical activity
  • explore the relationship between participation in physical activity, fitness and health.

(See Assessment Maps – Level 5 Participation in physical activity)

identify factors that influence motivation to be physically active

For example, students:

  • discuss a range of factors that influence motivation to be physically active such as:
    • enjoying participation in physical activity
    • wanting to improve health and/or fitness
    • the desire to lose weight
    • feeling welcome at a club or group that provides sport and physical activity
    • social interaction while exercising including having someone to be active with
    • family attitudes
    • positive role models
  • collect information about the requirements for participation in physical activities in the community such as cost, time, distance, equipment and skill level
  • design and conduct a survey of other students about what motivates them to be physically active and to try a new sport or activity

maintain regular participation in moderate to vigorous physical activities and analyse and evaluate their level of involvement in physical activity

It is recommended that children and young people participate in at least 60 minutes (and up to several hours) of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity every day.
(Commonwealth of Australia, 2004, Australia's Physical Activity Recommendations for Children and Young People, Department of Health and Ageing)

Physical education classes should provide a range of opportunities for students to participate in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, which contributes to the achievement of this recommendation.

Moderate Intensity – a level of activity that produces a slight increase in students' breathing and heart rate. Students are able to talk comfortably whilst participating in activity of moderate intensity. Typical activities of moderate intensity include walking, active play, light jogging, recreational swimming, sports and games etc

Vigorous Intensity – a level of activity that produces a large increase in students' breathing and heart rate. The perceived effort would be hard and students would find it difficult to talk freely whilst participating in activity of vigorous intensity. Typical activities include brisk walking, running, lap swimming, cycling and dance.

Analyse and evaluate levels of involvement: For example, students:

  • record their involvement in physical activity and compare this to  Australia’s Physical Activity Recommendations for Children and Young People
  • evaluate their reasons for participating in physical activity such as fitness, enjoyment or social interaction
  • explore community attitudes towards physical activity
  • identify opportunities for participation in physical activity, including the roles and responsibilities of the community, government, business and industry
  • explain the differences between involvement in sport, fitness and recreation activities, including types of experiences and the range of activities.

combine motor skills, strategic thinking and tactical knowledge to improve individual and team performance

For example, students:

  • create space to receive a pass from a team member
  • devise a defensive formation in a game of soccer apply the concepts of attack and defence in games
  • apply individual and team defensive strategies to prevent or intercept a pass from an opposing team member
  • select a shot, such as a drop shot or lob, to reposition an opponent in tennis, badminton or squash
  • select and apply a defensive play, such as the use of a sweeper in soccer, or being able to defend a space rather than a person, when appropriate, such as defending in the goal area
  • work as a team to devise attacking strategies, such as implementing a sequence of passes to score a goal in three-against-three attack and defence situations
  • identify set plays when viewing a video of a team or individual sport
  • develop a set of criteria for evaluating their own or team’s performance.


Back to Top

Health promotion and knowledge - Level 5

Refer to Level 5 Health promotion and knowledge for the full standard.

Excerpts from the standard Terms and definitions/examples

describe physical, emotional and social changes that occur as a result of the adolescent stage of the lifespan

For example, students:

  • continue their study of the changes associated with puberty, identifying the changes that have already occurred for people of their age
  • identify and describe the changes (physical, social and emotional) that they expect to occur over the next five years
  • identify the stages of the reproductive process such as menstruation, sperm production, conception, pregnancy and childbirth
  • discuss the relationship between physical and emotional maturity
  • identify feelings and emotions that occur during adolescence such as mood changes, sexual feelings, self-consciousness and self-worth
  • recognise the implications of physical changes on behaviour such as the increased need for independence, privacy, personal space as well as the growing influence of peer group
  • learn how to access information about the changes occurring in their bodies and lives.

factors that influence their own development 

For example, students identify and consider how development is affected by genetic and environmental factors such as:

  • genetic features such as height, skin or eye colour
  • injury or illness
  • stress and stressful life events
  • nutrition and diet
  • participation in physical activity.

describe the effect of family and community on the development of personal identity and values

For example, students:

  • identify the components for their identity such as gender, culture, body image, sexuality, successes and failures
  • identify values held by their family and the community and discuss which of these values they consider are important
  • investigate the changing nature of one’s sense of self and how it can be different in various social contexts
  • explore the relationship between personal identity, body image and views about what it means to be male or female
  • examine peer influences (both positive and negative) and how this may conflict with family values
  • examine laws and individual values how do these influence views on what is right and what is wrong.

identify the outcomes of risk taking behaviour

For example, students:

  • understand that risk taking can lead to both positive and negative outcomes
  • identify negative outcomes of risk taking such as being arrested, unplanned pregnancy, death, decline in physical health due to drug or alcohol use, personal injury or expenses associated with risk taking behaviours
  • identify positive outcomes of risk taking such as increased confidence, optimism, responsibility and happiness as well as developing feelings of success and self worth
  • identify strategies for recognising and assessing the level of risk
  • discuss what is a reasonable degree of risk, why do people take risks and how gender influences risk taking behaviour.

evaluate harm minimisation strategies

For example, in relation to specific situations students:

  • learn about ways to recognise, assess and minimise harm
  • practise using strategies such as conflict resolution, problem solving, negotiation and assertiveness
  • develop and action plan for minimising harm in a range of real life situations (such as travelling alone at night, at a party, unwanted sexual contact and being offered or using drugs) and evaluate the likely success of the plan
  • identify support networks.

identify health concerns of young people and the strategies that are designed to improve their health

Students identify concerns of young people such as:

  • transition from primary to secondary school
  • sexual health
  • stress management
  • the use of alcohol, tobacco or other drugs
  • anger management
  • body image and eating disorders
  • road safety
  • risk taking
  • mental health
  • personal safety

Students identify and discuss strategies relevant to specific health concerns that are designed to improve health.

describe health resources, products and services available for young people

For example, students:

  • examine the health resources and services available in the school environment and the local community to assist young people such as student counselling facilities, youth groups and clubs as well as the services provided by community health centres
  • identify qualities required to make a resource or product accessible for young people, such as low cost, providing confidentiality, close to public transport, culturally inclusive and welcoming and non threatening
  • identify providers and services which are youth specific, such as doctors, youth workers, school nurses, school counsellors, peer support options
  • identify criteria to establish the reliability and accuracy of health information and products
  • identify their rights and responsibilities as a consumer of health resources, products and services.

(See Assessment maps – Level 5 Health resources)

analyse a range of influences on personal and family food selection

Students analyse the impact of a range of factors on personal and family food selection such as some of the following:

  • culture and religion
  • family background
  • food availability
  • availability of time for shopping, cooking and food preparation
  • the impact of fast, convenience and functional foods
  • personal likes and dislikes
  • the media and advertising
  • knowledge of nutrition and health
  • access to food outlets such as markets, supermarkets and restaurants
  • money available to buy food
  • special food needs such as food allergies or being vegetarian
  • ethical considerations such as buying Australian products or supporting animal ethics or minimising the impact on the environment.

identify major nutritional needs for growth and activity

For example, students:

  • can list nutrients required for activity (such as carbohydrate, fat, protein and iron) and suggest food sources of these nutrients
  • can list nutrients required for growth (such as protein, water, calcium, vitamin D and vitamin C) and suggest food sources of these nutrients
  • examine the need for different vitamins and minerals in the release of energy and normal bodily functions.
  • understand the balance between energy expenditure and how this impacts on weight gain and loss.

Level 6

 Movement and physical activity - Level 6

Refer to Level 6 Movement and physical activity for the full standard.

Excerpts from the standard Terms and definitions/examples

demonstrate proficiency in manipulative and movement skills during the execution of complex activities

Proficiency means that the skill is almost automatic. For example, students:

  • focus on opponents while still performing the skill
  • perform movements that seem effortless and can be reproduced a variety of situations
  • apply biomechanical principles to improve task performance.

Manipulative skills are developed when a student controls an object such as a bat or ball. For example students:

  • consistently perform skills required in sports such as golf, tennis, basketball, cricket, volleyball, hockey, netball, lacrosse and football
  • using a variety of clubs during a round of golf
  • maintaining a rally for a series of consecutive shots during a volleyball match
  • perform a backhand overhead shot in squash or badminton
  • deliberately strike or place a ball through a gap in the field of play from a variety of deliveries (cricket, softball or volleyball).

Movement skills are the skills we require to participate in a range of movement, including walking, running swimming, fleeing, pursuing, leaping, turning, dodging.

For example, students:

  • adapt, transfer and improvise movement in increasingly demanding contexts
  • perform and refine swimming strokes for speed endurance and survival
  • use dance or gymnastics to perform technically complex movement sequences
  • complete a medley relay in the pool.

demonstrate advanced skills in selected activities

For example, students:

  • perform a range of advanced skills such as:
    • basketball - a lay-up rebounding or crossover dribble
    • volleyball – spike or dig
    • soccer – goal keeping racing dive, chest trap, heading or dribble with either foot
    • softball – bunting, pitching or base stealing
  • use a digital camera and computer software to evaluate their own or a partner's skill technique
  • develop a plan for improving a specific skill including improving the smoothness, accuracy of and the ability to reproduce specific skills.

use training methods to improve their fitness level

For example, students:

  • identify different components of fitness and how their importance varies between activities
  • become aware of the principles of training such as specificity, overload, frequency, intensity and duration
  • experience a variety of training methods such as weight training, flexibility training, plyometric training, interval training, fartlek, circuit training, Pilates, Nautilus, resistance bands and Swiss balls
  • set personal fitness goals, undertake a fitness program and evaluate its success
  • devise a movement and skill analysis of a partner/ player in a team game and then develop a fitness plan which aims to improve specific fitness components.

(See Assessment Map – Level 6 Interval Training)

participate in sports, games, recreational and leisure activities that maintain regular participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity

For example, students:

  • evaluate their participation in relation to the Australia’s Physical Activity Recommendations for Children and Young People
  • participate in a range of physical activities that are new to them such as tai-chi, kayaking or water polo and evaluate their potential as a physical activity for different age groups
  • analyse strategies to enhance enjoyment and to improve their participation in physical activity
  • collaboratively design and conduct an action plan for their school to increase participation and enjoyment in physical activity
  • reflect on their current levels of physical activity and propose short-term and long-term goals that will assist them to maintain regular participation in the future
  • analyse barriers to regular participation in physical activity and suggest strategies to overcome them
  • locate information about opportunities for physical activity in their local area.

employ and devise skills and strategies to counter tactical challenges in game situations

For example, students:

  • are able to use tactical skills such as zone, one-on-one and the offside trap
  • use game strategies for scoring, stopping scoring and restarting play after scoring
  • devise a set play to counter their opposition or particularly skilful opponent
  • develop, interpret and apply team and individual strategies and rules to meet the demands of a new situation
  • view a video of a challenge by an opposing team in a game and identify their team strengths, areas for team improvement and develop a team strategy to counter this challenge

assume responsibility for the conduct of aspects of a sporting competition in which roles are shared

For example, students:

  • select and perform a variety of roles as they organise, manage and participate in a sporting competition such as player, umpire, coach, scorer, administrator
  • organise a mini sports competition for junior or primary school students.

appropriate sporting behaviour

For example, students:

  • develop and implement a code of conduct for sporting behaviour, which could include the following features:
    • perform to the best of their ability at all times
    • accept the decisions of umpires and officials
    • shake hands at the completion of all matches
    • be gracious in victory and defeat
    • play within the competition rules and regulations
    • respect all participants in the game and treat them courteously
  • analyse their team’s adherence to a sporting code of conduct
  • analyse and evaluate the sporting behaviour of elite athletes.


Back to Top

Health promotion and knowledge - Level 6

Refer to Level 6 Health promotion and knowledge for the full standard.

Excerpts from the standard Terms and definitions/examples

identify and describe a range of social and cultural factors that influence the development of personal identity and values

For example, students:

  • identify ways in which independence can be expressed
  • analyse how and why people develop different values
  • consider how laws, media, films, and education shape the development of identity
  • examine different cultural values and possible ways these may clash with personal and wider community values
  • practise skills in discussing a controversial issue with a person holding different viewpoints
  • discuss the interplay between strongly held beliefs, open mindedness, tolerance and acceptance in relation to issues such as expressions of sexuality, racial attitudes or political opinions
  • consider how religion and ethnicity shape identity.

identify and explain roles and responsibilities associated with developing greater independence, including those related to sexual matters and sexual relationships

For example, students:

  • examine the different relationships which can exist in a young person’s life
  • discuss the differing roles and responsibilities of different types of relationships
  • discuss what constitutes an effective and supportive relationship
  • discuss the feelings associated with intimacy and sexual attraction
  • identify the roles and responsibilities which exist within a sexual relationship
  • examine aspects of sexual relationships such as commitment, trust, negotiation, pressures, rights and protection
  • explore issues associated with sexuality and sexual health such as safe sex practices, sexual negotiation, same sex attraction, the impact of alcohol on sexual and personal safety
  • identify ways supporting others who have difficulty with their sexuality
  • recognise the responsibilities associated with sexual activity
  • examine levels of power within different relationships such as parent-child, teacher-child, coach- team members, people in close relationships
  • identify health services which are available to young people specifically for sexual health, relationships and family issues
  • investigate policies and practices in relation to sexual and racial harassment, homophobia and/or discrimination, and consider their rights and responsibilities in these areas.

describe mental health issues relevant to young people

For example, students:

  • examine the significant mental health issues which may affect young people such as depression, anxiety, phobias, bullying, self esteem, grief/loss, eating disorders and stress
  • challenge negative community perceptions of mental health issues and consider reasons these may have developed
  • identify difficulties faced by people who have a mental illness such as work opportunities, discrimination and bullying
  • suggest strategies to deal with loss and grief
  • identify the support services available for individuals with a mental illness and the importance of family and friends.

compare and evaluate perceptions of challenge, risk and safety

For example, students:

  • define the terms risk, challenge and safety
  • identify behaviours associated with risk, challenge and safety
  • consider the terms on a continuum –what is highly risky/safe/challenging 
  • discuss the factors which affect risk, challenge and safety perceptions for different people and in different settings such as school
  • evaluate strategies which promote safety in different settings such as  occupational health and safety in the workplace or party safe strategies in the home.

demonstrate understanding of appropriate assertiveness and resilience strategies

For example, students:

  • examine networks, organisations or significant people who can be trusted to provide support including friends and adults, at school, work, home and in the local community
  • understand what it means to be passive, aggressive and assertive when communicating and how this impacts on relationships with others
  • understand what it means to be resilient and why resilience is important
  • identify behaviours that contribute to resilience such as problem solving, decision making, goal setting, positive thinking, feeling connected to others, perseverance, achievements, using mistakes as learning experiences and focusing on aspects of your life that control or change
  • reflect on a past situation which has required a change, identify the difficulties encountered and the personal skills and characteristics which assisted in managing the change
  • examine case studies of people who have overcome adversity and identify their personal characteristics and qualities
  • practise using assertiveness and resilience strategies in role play and simulation games and reflect on the success of these strategies.

analyse positive and negative health outcomes of a range of personal behaviours and community actions

For example, students:

  • examine major causes of illness, injury and death in Australia such as alcohol use and driving, smoking and its links to cancer, heart disease and its links to poor nutrition
  • describe a specific personal behaviour and analyse the health consequences  for the individual or the community
  • describe a set of actions taken by the community to promote health and prevent illness and injury in relation to a specific mental or physical health issue or for a particular setting
  • develop a media file following a debate about a community action designed to promote health such as the banning of smoking in public places
  • investigate a health issue and analyse the personal behaviours and community actions that impact on the health issue in both positive and negative ways.

(See Assessment Maps – Level 5.75 Sample Road safety)

identify health services and products provided by government and non-government bodies and analyse how these can be used to support the health needs of young people

For example, students:

  • discuss reasons young people may not use health services as much as other groups in the community
  • examine the rights of young people in relation to access of health care such as the rights to privacy, confidentiality, to be listened to and to be given an explanation of any treatment
  • develop a set of criteria which can be used to evaluate a health service
  • analyse services and products provided by non government organisations such as Lifeline, Kids Help Line, Quit, Family Planning Victoria or a local community health centre which support the health needs of young people
  • discuss the role of the government in providing health services such as treatment in a public hospital and immunisation programs to combat diseases like TB, Rubella and cervical cancer
  • identify how to obtain a Medicare card and the services provided by Medicare.

identify and describe strategies that address current trends in nutritional status of Australians

For example, students:

  • identify current trends in food intake and nutritional status of Australians
  • explain the link between food intake and diet related diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis and obesity
  • describe strategies to address current trends in nutritional status such as;
    • increases in childhood obesity – regulation of 'child-time' advertising, healthy school canteen policies, school and community education strategies
    • high levels of heart disease – Heart Foundation ‘Pick the Tick’ strategy, better nutrition information, labelling of food products, regulation of health-related claims by manufacturers.

analyse and evaluate factors affecting food consumption in Australia

For example, students analyse factors which affect food consumption in Australia such as:

  • education levels
  • changes to family life including the impact of both parents working
  • cultural and religious background of Australians
  • availability of food in Australia
  • legislation controlling food labelling and advertising
  • access to food outlets
  • awareness of health issues associated with food intake
  • personal nutritional needs.


Back to Top