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Background to the VELS – English domain

Standards in the English domain were developed following a detailed analysis of the English Curriculum and Standards Framework (CSF) II, the previous curriculum guidelines for Victorian schools. The VELS focuses on the essential learning students need. Further information about the general relationships between the two curriculum frameworks is provided in tables for each level.

Introduction | Level 1 | Level 2 | Level 3 | Level 4 | Level 5 | Level 6 | Show All

Introduction

Language and texts constitute the central and essential concepts in both the English VELS and the CSF II. In both the VELS and the CSF II:

The definition of texts in the English domain is broad and diverse, and refers to written, verbal and visual texts in print, electronic, graphic and multimedia forms. Texts include imaginative literature, film and media texts, texts reflecting the personal, and everyday texts. The CSF II also defines texts broadly and includes written, verbal and visual texts, as well as ‘communications composed on, or transmitted by, computers or other technological tools, such as multimedia’.

The conscious, deliberate study of language for its own sake is a particular characteristic of the discipline of English. Students gain competence from using the language in different contexts and for different purposes. They acquire knowledge, understanding and skills by investigating and reflecting on language, and by considering questions of audience, context and purpose, and the stylistic features appropriate to different contextual demands. The sub-strands of Aspects of language in the CSF II – Contextual understanding, Linguistic structures and features, and Strategies – are not separate in the English standards, but are integrated in each dimension and at every level.

The concepts of texts and language in the English domain are represented in three dimensions, Reading, Writing, and Speaking and listening. In this way, English in the VELS is similar to the English Key Learning Area (KLA) in the CSF II where these language modes provide the main organising strands. As in the CSF II, the concepts of texts and language are interwoven. At each level, the central concepts of texts and language require explicit teaching in each dimension.

Level 1

At Level 1, the focus in all three dimensions is on key foundational skills. Students compose and respond to a range of simple texts about familiar ideas and experiences. Students develop knowledge about important aspects of language, including the alphabetic principle, concepts of print, and the influence of context, purpose and audience.

Reading

The Reading standard at Level 1 describes key foundational skills and the range of texts read at the level. Knowledge and understanding about the alphabetic principle and letter–sound relationships, and concepts of print, is essential for beginning readers. Essential strategies that enable readers to comprehend the texts they read aloud are identified, and reference made to the role that students’ knowledge of the text’s topic plays in prediction and comprehension. The learning outcomes for Reading in the CSF II and the detail provided in the indicators focus on texts and language, and align closely with the standards.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Reading

At Level 1, students match print and spoken text in their immediate environment. They recognise how sounds are represented alphabetically and identify some sound–letter relationships. They read aloud simple print and electronic texts that include some frequently used words and predominantly oral language structures. They read from left to right with return sweep, and from top to bottom. They use title, illustrations and knowledge of a text topic to predict meaning. They use context and information about words, letters, combinations of letters and the sounds associated with them to make meaning, and use illustrations to extend meaning.

 

Reading

Texts

1.5 Read and respond to simple texts with familiar content and predominantly oral language structures.

Contextual understanding

1.6 Compare experience and knowledge with information and ideas in texts.

Linguistic structures and features

1.7 Use some basic linguistic structures and features when reading.

Strategies

1.8 Use a range of sources of information to make meaning from texts.

 

Writing

At Level 1, the Writing standard is focused on the foundational skills involved in learning to write. There are strong connections between the specified knowledge and understanding about Writing and Reading at this level. The direct reference to texts that ‘convey ideas or messages’ emphasises the development of understanding of the communicative purposes for writing, and of the significance of audience. The Writing learning outcomes at Level 1 of the CSF II emphasise the use of writing to communicate, and the indicators provide details of the key foundational skills and knowledge required at this level.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Writing

At Level 1, students write personal recounts and simple texts about familiar topics to convey ideas or messages. In their writing, they use conventional letters, groups of letters, and simple punctuation such as full stops and capital letters. Students are aware of the sound system and the relationships between letters and sounds in words when spelling. They form letters correctly, and use a range of writing implements and software.

 

Writing

Texts

1.9 Produce simple written texts that convey an idea or message.

Contextual understanding

1.10 Identify the purpose of own and others’ writing.

Linguistic structures and features

1.11 Use conventional written symbols for expressing ideas and information.

Strategies

1.12 Use a range of ways to record ideas and information.

 

Speaking and listening

At Level 1, the standard in the dimension of Speaking and listening establishes the importance of context and the appropriate use of spoken language, describing the kinds of classroom activities that provide opportunities for developing this contextual understanding. By listening to and responding to brief texts, students progressively develop knowledge of language features such as sequence, volume and pace. Strategies such as self-correction develop at this level. This standard draws together the separate sub-strands of the CSF II learning outcomes for Speaking and listening at the level.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Speaking and listening

At Level 1, students use spoken language appropriately in a variety of classroom contexts. They ask and answer simple questions for information and clarification, contribute relevant ideas during class or group discussion, and follow simple instructions.

They listen to and produce brief spoken texts that deal with familiar ideas and information. They sequence main events and ideas coherently in speech, and speak at an appropriate volume and pace for listeners’ needs. They self-correct by rephrasing a statement or question when meaning is not clear.

 

Speaking and listening

Texts

1.1 Listen to and produce brief spoken texts that deal with familiar ideas and information.

Contextual understanding

1.2 Use speaking and listening appropriately for classroom situations.

Linguistic structures and features

1.3 Use some basic linguistic structures and features when speaking or listening in a variety of classroom situations.

Strategies

1.4 Self-correct to clarify meaning, listen actively and respond appropriately in a variety of classroom situations.

 

Level 2

At Level 2 the focus is on the kinds of text that students compose and respond to, aspects of language including contextual understanding, the developing use of conventions and structures, and strategies.

Reading

The Reading standard at Level 2 refers to the features of texts that students read with increasing independence at this level, including both imaginative and informative texts. The structures and features of language that students use to decode these texts are described. The range of skills students demonstrate at this level is broader than at Level 1, and includes being able to locate information and interpret ideas and actions in texts, as well as being able to predict and provide an accurate retelling of ideas in a text. Contextual understanding about authors’ construction of texts, and the differences between real and imaginary experience is important at this level. The dimension also refers to the strategies that students use to support their reading. The Reading learning outcomes at CSF II Level 2 are more generalised, but the indicators provide the detail about the knowledge, skills and understandings that are incorporated in the standard.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Reading

At Level 2, students read independently and respond to short imaginative and informative texts with familiar ideas and information, predictable structures, and a small amount of unfamiliar vocabulary. They match sounds accurately to a range of letters, letter clusters and patterns, and work out the meaning of unfamiliar phrases and words in context. They locate directly stated information, retell ideas in sequence using vocabulary and phrases from the text, and interpret labelled diagrams. They predict plausible endings for stories and infer characters’ feelings. They self-correct when reading aloud and describe strategies used to gain meaning. They identify that texts are constructed by authors, and distinguish between texts that represent real and imaginary experience.

 

Reading

Texts

2.5(a) Read and respond to short texts with familiar ideas, information and vocabulary, predictable structures and frequent illustrations.

2.5(b) Read and respond to short texts with familiar ideas and information, a small proportion of unfamiliar vocabulary and low-level support from illustrations.

Contextual understanding

2.6(a) Identify the ways in which texts are constructed by authors and others.

2.6(b) Distinguish between texts that represent real and imaginary experiences.

Linguistic structures and features

2.7(a) Identify the linguistic structures and features of short texts with familiar ideas and information.

2.7(b) Identify and describe the linguistic structures and features of short texts with familiar ideas and information.

Strategies

2.8(a) Use basic strategies for selecting and interpreting texts.

2.8(b) Use and discuss basic strategies for selecting and interpreting texts.

 

Writing

At Level 2, the Writing standard begins with a clear description of the kinds of texts that students write, and refers to the development of understanding about considerations of purpose, context and audience in selecting content and form. Structures and features of language appropriate to the kinds of texts composed by students are specifically identified. Students’ use of effective strategies for spelling, and for editing and revision are noted. The standard has the same focus as the CSF II Writing learning outcome statements, and includes detail that is contained in the CSF II indicators.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Writing

At Level 2, students write short sequenced texts that include some related ideas about familiar topics. They write texts that convey ideas and information to known audiences. They select content, form and vocabulary depending on the purpose for writing, and describe the purpose and audience for their own and others’ writing. They use appropriate structures to achieve some organisation of the subject matter. They link ideas in a variety of ways using pronouns, conjunctions and adverbial phrases indicating time and place. They accurately spell frequently used words, and make use of known spelling patterns to make plausible attempts at spelling unfamiliar words. They use capital letters, full stops and question marks correctly. They reread their own writing and use a range of editing resources to revise and clarify meaning. They write upper- and lower-case letters legibly with consistent size, slope and spacing.

 

Writing

Texts

2.9 Write short sequenced texts that include some related ideas about familiar topics.

Contextual understanding

2.10 Explain the purpose and audience of own and others’ writing.

Linguistic structures and features

2.11 Identify and use some basic linguistic structures and features of written language so that writing can be readily understood by others.

Strategies

2.12 Use basic strategies to plan, compose and revise texts.

 

Speaking and listening

The Speaking and listening dimension of the Level 2 standard focuses on the use students make of spoken texts, and on the ways in which they respond to these texts. The emphasis is on communication in informal contexts, and on the development of strategies for interacting effectively with others. Reference is made to structures and features of spoken texts such as beginnings and endings and intonation. The general descriptions in the CSF II Speaking and listening learning outcome statements, together with some of the detail presented in the indicators, describe the same range of knowledge and skills.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Speaking and listening

At Level 2, students listen to and produce spoken texts that deal with familiar ideas and information. They demonstrate, usually in informal situations, that they are able to speak clearly using simple utterances and basic vocabulary. They organise spoken texts using simple features to signal beginnings and endings. They vary volume and intonation patterns to add emphasis. They contribute to group activities by making relevant comments and asking clarifying questions to facilitate communication. After listening to short live or recorded presentations, they recall some of the main ideas and information presented. They listen to others and respond appropriately to what has been said.

 

Speaking and listening

Texts

2.1 Listen to and produce predictable spoken texts that deal with familiar ideas and information.

Contextual understanding

2.2 Vary speaking and listening for familiar situations

Linguistic structures and features

2.3 Identify and use some of the linguistic structures and features of predictable spoken texts.

Strategies

2.4 Use questioning and comments to expand or clarify ideas.

 

Level 3

At Level 3, students respond to and compose texts for an expanding range of purposes, audiences and contexts, and they are expected to acquire further knowledge about language strategies and conventions.

Reading

The Reading standard broadens the range of texts read to include those with some unfamiliar ideas and information, and new vocabulary and textual features. Interpreting main ideas and purpose, and making inferences are important aspects of reading at this level. The standard emphasises the role of contextual understanding by drawing attention to the need for students to be able to identify how language is used to represent characters, people and events in different ways. Strategies for locating, selecting and recording information are developed at this level. The standard focuses on the same range of texts and aspects of language that are presented in the learning outcomes and indicators in the CSF II for Reading.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Reading

At Level 3, students read and respond to an increasing range of imaginative and informative texts with some unfamiliar ideas and information, vocabulary and textual features. They interpret the main ideas and purpose of texts. They make inferences from imaginative text about plot and setting and about characters’ qualities, motives and actions. They infer meaning from material presented in informative texts. They identify how language is used to represent information, characters, people, places and events in different ways including identification of some simple symbolic meanings and stereotypes. They use several strategies to locate, select and record key information from texts.

 

Reading

Texts

3.5(a) Read and respond to a small range of texts with familiar ideas and information, and some unfamiliar vocabulary and textual features.

3.5(b) Read and respond to a small range of texts with some unfamiliar ideas and information, vocabulary and textual features.

Contextual understanding

3.6(a) Identify the meaning of simple symbolic representations in texts.

3.6(b) Identify simple symbolic representations and stereotypes in texts and explain their purpose and meaning.

Linguistic structures and features

3.7(a) Identify and describe the linguistic structures and features of a small range of texts.

3.7(b) Use knowledge of the linguistic structures and features of a small range of texts to construct meaning.

Strategies

3.8(a) Use several strategies for selecting resources and finding information in texts.

3.8(b) Use several strategies for selecting resources and locating and recording key information found in texts.

 

Writing

At Level 3, the Writing standard describes the growth of control over the structures and features of texts comprising several paragraphs. The range of texts at this level includes narrative and texts that present a point of view. Awareness of audience is important. The standard lists key linguistic structures and features expected at this level, including a variety of sentence structures, correct use of tense, and a range of punctuation. Reference is made to selection of appropriate vocabulary and accurate spelling. Spelling strategies are further developed. The range of texts and features of language presented in the standard are more precisely identified than in the CSF II Writing learning outcomes, incorporating details contained in the CSF II indicators.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Writing

At Level 3, students write texts containing several logically ordered paragraphs that express opinions and include ideas and information about familiar topics. They write narratives which include characters, setting and plot. They order information and sequence events using some detail or illustrative evidence, and they express a point of view providing some information and supporting detail. They combine verbal and visual elements in the texts they produce. They meet the needs of audiences by including appropriate background information.

They write a variety of simple and compound sentences and use verb tenses correctly. They use punctuation to support meaning, including exclamation marks and quotation marks, and accurately use full stops, commas and question marks. They use vocabulary appropriate to context and spell most one- and two-syllable words with regular spelling patterns, and frequently used words which have less regular spelling patterns. They use sound and visual patterns when attempting to spell unfamiliar words.

 

Writing

Texts

3.9 Write texts that convey intended ideas and information, using a small range of text types.

Contextual understanding

3.10 Select an appropriate text type to write for a particular purpose and audience.

Linguistic structures and features

3.11 Identify and use basic linguistic structures and features of written language in a small range of texts.

Strategies

3.12 Use a small range of strategies to plan, compose and revise texts.

 

Speaking and listening

The Speaking and listening standard for Level 3 identifies a number of different purposes for speaking and listening, including the justification of opinions. The capacity to take account of differences in context and audience for this range of purposes develops further at this level. Students use a variety of strategies, including voice projection and questioning. The knowledge, skills and understanding encompassed in the standard closely match the learning outcomes and indicators of the Speaking and listening strand of the CSF II.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Speaking and listening

At Level 3, students vary their speaking and listening for a small range of contexts, purposes and audiences. They project their voice adequately for an audience, use appropriate spoken language features, and modify spoken texts to clarify meaning and information.

They listen attentively to spoken texts, including factual texts, and identify the topic, retell information accurately, ask clarifying questions, volunteer information and justify opinions.

 

Speaking and listening

Texts

3.1 Listen to and produce a small range of spoken texts that deal with familiar ideas and information.

Contextual understanding

3.2 Vary speaking and listening for a small range of contexts, purposes and audiences.

Linguistic structures and features

3.3 Identify and use basic linguistic structures and features of a small range of spoken text types.

Strategies

3.4 Identify and use several strategies for assisting spoken communication.

 

Level 4

At Level 4, the range of texts required in each dimension is more extensive than at earlier levels. Likewise, there is reference to a greater range of aspects of language appropriate to the broad range of purposes, audiences and contexts for these texts.

Reading

The Reading standard for Level 4 makes explicit reference to print and non-print texts, including literary, everyday and media texts. At this level, students’ developing capacities in critically analysing texts are an important focus, including the capacity to ‘identify how sociocultural values, attitudes and beliefs are presented in texts’. The analysis of a variety of textual features is also a focus. Students are expected to use a variety of strategies when reading unfamiliar texts. The standard is explicit about the inclusion of both print and non-print texts, which are also referred to in the CSF II Level 4 Reading outcome statements and indicators. The explicit focus on critical analysis is consistent with the indicators in the Contextual understanding and Linguistic structures and features sub-strands.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Reading

At Level 4, students read, interpret and respond to a wide range of literary, everyday and media texts in print and in multimodal formats. They analyse these texts and support interpretations with evidence drawn from the text. They describe how texts are constructed for particular purposes and audiences, and identify how sociocultural values, attitudes and beliefs are presented in texts. They analyse information, imagery, characterisation, dialogue, point of view, plot and setting. They use strategies such as reading on, using contextual cues, and drawing on knowledge of text organisation when interpreting texts containing unfamiliar ideas and information.

 

Reading

Texts

4.5 Read and interpret a range of texts containing some unfamiliar ideas and information.

Contextual understanding

4.6 Explain how texts are constructed for particular purposes and audiences.

Linguistic structures and features

4.7 Use knowledge of linguistic structures and features to explain the construction of a range of texts.

Strategies

4.8 Use a range of strategies for selecting resources and interpreting key information and ideas found in a number of texts.

 

Writing

At Level 4, the Writing dimension of the standard indicates considerable breadth of purpose, audience and context for the texts that students compose. These texts are in print and electronic forms. Reference is made to the wide range of structures and features of language appropriate to the purposes, audiences and contexts for these texts. The standard identifies the widening range of writing strategies used by students. There is more direct emphasis on the writing of print and electronic texts than in the writing strand and related sub-strands of the CSF II Level 4 Writing, although there is reference to electronic texts in the CSF II indicators. There are strong similarities in Aspects of language described in the standard and in the CSF II learning outcomes and indicators.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Writing

At Level 4, students produce, in print and electronic forms, a variety of texts for different purposes using structures and features of language appropriate to the purpose, audience and context of the writing. They begin to use simple figurative language and visual images. They use a range of vocabulary, a variety of sentence structures, and use punctuation accurately, including apostrophes. They identify and use different parts of speech, including nouns, pronouns, adverbs, comparative adverbs and adjectives, and use appropriate prepositions and conjunctions. They use a range of approaches to spelling, applying morphemic knowledge and an understanding of visual and phonic patterns. They employ a variety of strategies for writing, including note-making, using models, planning, editing and proofreading.

 

Writing

Texts

4.9 Use a range of text types to write about some unfamiliar ideas and information, providing supporting detail.

Contextual understanding

4.10 Select an appropriate text type to write for a range of contexts, purposes and audiences.

Linguistic structures and features

4.11 Control the linguistic structures and features of a range of written texts.

Strategies

4.12 Use a range of strategies to plan, compose, revise and edit texts dealing with some unfamiliar ideas and information.

 

Speaking and listening

The Speaking and listening standard for Level 4 emphasises the different purposes for students’ oral presentations, and the increasing formality of these presentations that necessitates planning and rehearsal. Students use many features of language appropriate for different contexts, purposes and audiences. The continuing development of listening skills, and presenting of evidence of effective listening (for example, by summarising main ideas and supporting details) are important. The identification of others’ opinions is related to the development of critical listening. The learning outcomes and indicators for the Speaking and listening in the CSF II are based on the same range of texts and aspects of language as the standard.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Speaking and listening

At Level 4, students plan, rehearse and make presentations for different purposes. They sustain a point of view and provide succinct accounts of personal experiences or events. They adjust their speaking to take account of context, purpose and audience, and vary tone, volume and pace of speech to create or emphasise meaning.

When listening to spoken texts, they identify the main idea and supporting details and summarise them for others. They identify opinions offered by others, propose other relevant viewpoints and extend ideas in a constructive manner.

 

Speaking and listening

Texts

4.1 Listen to and produce a range of spoken texts that deal with some unfamiliar ideas and information.

Contextual understanding

4.2 Listen critically, commenting on context, and adjust own speaking for different purposes, situations and audience expectations.

Linguistic structures and features

4.3 Identify and control the major linguistic structures and features of a range of spoken texts.

Strategies

4.4 Identify strategies for adjusting communication and use these appropriately.

 

Level 5

The texts relevant to each dimension of the Level 5 standard are characterised by their diversity of purpose and the challenging themes and issues they present. The use of language at this level is appropriate to the complexity of the texts. Knowledge about language is sufficiently comprehensive to enable students to critically evaluate spoken and written texts.

Reading

The Reading standard for Level 5 focuses on the challenging ideas and issues explored in the wide range of texts that students read and view. Students are expected to be able to present personal responses to texts, to justify interpretations of texts, and to make inferences about texts. An emphasis on critical literacy is evident in the focus on the analysis of how social values and attitudes are conveyed in texts, and in the comparison of how ideas and information are presented in different texts. The Texts and Aspects of language sub-strands of the CSF II Reading learning outcomes and indicators encompass the same range of knowledge, skills and understanding, with a similar focus on interpretation and justification of interpretations.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Reading

At Level 5, students read and view imaginative, informative and persuasive texts that explore ideas and information related to challenging topics, themes and issues. They identify the ideas, themes and issues explored in these texts, and provide supporting evidence to justify their interpretations. They produce personal responses, for example, interpretive pieces and character profiles. They infer meanings and messages in texts, analyse how social values or attitudes are conveyed, compare the presentation of information and ideas in different texts, and identify cause and effect in informative texts.

 

Reading

Texts

5.5 Read and justify interpretation of a range of texts that present some challenging themes and issues.

Contextual understanding

5.6 Explain possible reasons for different interpretations of a text.

Linguistic structures and features

5.7 Explain how specific features of language use affect readers’ interpretation of texts.

Strategies

5.8 Use strategies to select resources, locate, interpret and synthesise key information and ideas from a range of texts.

 

Writing

The Writing standard for Level 5 also focuses on texts that deal with challenging themes and issues. Students write for an increasingly complex range of purposes, including speculating, hypothesising, persuading and reflecting. The texts students compose incorporate key organisational and language features of extended narratives and arguments. Students are expected to use a range of strategies for purposeful editing of their writing to achieve clarity, coherence and consistency. The learning outcomes and indicators in the Texts and Aspects of language sub-strands in the CSF II also emphasise challenging themes and issues, control of the key features of a range of texts, and purposeful editing of writing.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Writing

At Level 5, students produce, in print and electronic forms, texts for a variety of purposes, including speculating, hypothesising, persuading and reflecting. They write extended narratives or scripts with attention to characterisation, consistency of viewpoint and development of a resolution. They write arguments that state and justify a personal viewpoint; reports incorporating challenging themes and issues; personal reflections on, or evaluations of, texts presenting challenging themes and issues. Students improve the accuracy and readability of their writing, developing confidence in the identification and use of grammatical conventions and features of language and in their use of figurative language. They use a range of punctuation accurately to support meaning, including the use of ellipses, dashes, colons and semi-colons. They control tenses, and subject–verb and noun–pronoun agreement. They accurately identify and use different parts of speech. They edit their writing for clarity, coherence and consistency of style, and proofread and correct spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors.

 

Writing

Texts

5.9 Use a range of text types to write about some challenging themes and issues.

Contextual understanding

5.10 Adjust writing for a range of contexts, purposes and audiences.

Linguistic structures and features

5.11 Identify and control the linguistic structures and features of written texts that present some challenging themes and issues.

Strategies

5.12 Use a range of strategies to plan, compose, revise and edit texts that present some challenging themes and issues.

 

Speaking and listening

At Level 5, the Speaking and listening standard focuses on the expression of creative and analytical responses to texts, themes and issues. In preparing their own presentations, and in responding to others’ presentations, students’ critical awareness of the influence of audience, purpose and context is an important focus. Students are expected to use a wide range of strategies to persuade audiences, including the use of a variety of multimedia. They are also expected to make effective use of key strategies when listening to others. Interaction between speakers and listeners is emphasised, for example, in relation to asking clarifying questions. There is a close match between the expectations about texts and language in the standard, and the learning outcomes and indicators for Texts and Aspects of language in the CSF II at this level.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Speaking and listening

At Level 5, students express creative and analytical responses to texts, themes and issues. They identify main issues in a topic and provide supporting detail and evidence for opinions. They critically evaluate the spoken language of others and select, prepare and present spoken texts for specific audiences and purposes. They use a variety of multimodal texts to support individual presentations in which they inform or persuade an audience.

When listening to others, students ask clarifying questions and build on the ideas of others. They identify key ideas and take notes. They show an awareness of the influence of audience on the construction and presentation of spoken texts, and of how situational and sociocultural factors affect audience responses.

 

Speaking and listening

Texts

5.1 Listen to and produce a range of spoken texts dealing with some challenging themes and issues.

Contextual understanding

5.2 Discuss critically the spoken language use of others and select, prepare and present spoken texts for specified purposes and audiences.

Linguistic structures and features

5.3 Identify and control some linguistic structures and features of a range of spoken texts that enable speakers to influence audiences.

Strategies

5.4 Identify and use a range of strategies to influence an audience.

 

Level 6

The extensive range of texts with which students engage at Level 6 ‘explore personal, social, cultural and political issues of significance to their own lives’. Critical analysis of written, verbal and electronic texts develops further understanding of the influence of context, purpose and audience in shaping texts and positioning readers. In written and oral presentations, students make effective use of linguistic structures and features to present different perspectives on complex ideas and issues.

Reading

At Level 6, the Reading standard dimension identifies the breadth of the range of imaginative, informative and argumentative texts that students ‘read, view, analyse and discuss’. These texts are drawn from contemporary and classical contexts, and include media texts. Critical analysis is significant, as students ‘identify the multiple purposes for which texts are created’, and ‘explain how texts are shaped by the time, place and cultural setting in which they were created’. Students make effective use of strategies for comparing, contrasting, synthesising and drawing conclusions. There are many similarities to the standard to be found in the Reading strand of the CSF II at this level: the Texts sub-strand emphasises the ‘complex attitudes, themes and issues’ students explore in many different kinds of texts; the Contextual understanding sub-strand refers to the shaping of texts by ‘the time, place and cultural setting in which they were created’.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Reading

At Level 6, students read, view, analyse, critique, reflect on and discuss contemporary and classical imaginative texts that explore personal, social, cultural and political issues of significance to their own lives. They also read, view, analyse and discuss a wide range of informative and persuasive texts and identify the multiple purposes for which texts are created. They explain how texts are shaped by the time, place and cultural setting in which they are created. They compare and contrast the typical features of particular texts and synthesise information from different texts to draw conclusions.

 

Reading

Texts

6.5 Read a range of texts and use them to discuss different perspectives on complex themes and issues.

Contextual understanding

6.6 Explain how texts are shaped by the time, place and cultural setting in which they are created.

Linguistic structures and features

6.7 Compare the linguistic structures and features of different texts, analysing the demands, limitations and advantages of each.

Strategies

6.8 Apply strategies to support understanding of dense or extended texts.

 

Writing

The Writing standard for Level 6 parallels the Reading standard in the range and complexity of the texts that students compose: ‘sustained and coherent narratives’ and ‘argumentative texts dealing with complex ideas and issues’. In their writing, students demonstrate critical understanding of the impact of the selection of subject matter and language on audiences, and on achieving specific purposes. Students’ knowledge and control of language structures and features ‘support the presentation of different perspectives on complex themes and issues’. Students make effective use of a repertoire of strategies for planning, organising and editing to achieve ‘accuracy, consistency and clarity’ in their writing. Across the sub-strands of Writing in the CSF II at this level, the focus is also on the variety and complexity of the texts students compose. The CSF II Aspects of language sub-strands place emphasis on the same range of knowledge and understanding as the English standard.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Writing

At Level 6, students write sustained and cohesive narratives that experiment with different techniques and show attention to chronology, characterisation, consistent point of view and development of a resolution. They write persuasive texts dealing with complex ideas and issues and control the linguistic structures and features that support the presentation of different perspectives on complex themes and issues. They select subject matter and begin to use a range of language techniques to try to position readers to accept particular views of people, characters, events, ideas and information. They compose a range of other texts, such as feature articles, webpages and workplace texts. They plan and deliver presentations, sequencing and organising complex ideas. They write accurately punctuated, grammatically sound and complex sentences with embedded clauses and phrases. They are able to maximise the effects of rhythm and tone, and write with developing fluency. They proofread and edit their own writing for accuracy, consistency and clarity.

 

Writing

Texts

6.9 Use a range of text types to convey detailed information and discuss different perspectives on complex themes and issues in writing.

Contextual understanding

6.10 Identify the characteristics and expectations of particular audiences and accommodate or resist these expectations when writing.

Linguistic structures and features

6.11 Identify and control the linguistic structures and features of written texts designed to present different perspectives on complex themes and issues.

Strategies

6.11 Identify and control the linguistic structures and features of written texts designed to present different perspectives on complex themes and issues.

 

Speaking and listening

At Level 6, the Speaking and listening standard has a strong focus on critical analysis of ‘the relationship between texts, contexts, speakers and listeners in a range of situations’. In interactive settings, students utilise a range of strategies for effective communication, as they ‘compare ideas, build on others’ ideas, provide and justify their points of view, and reach conclusions’. The texts they listen to and present deal with ‘complex subject matter in a range of situations’. The new standard and the CSF II Speaking and listening outcomes and indicators place similar emphasis on texts that explore complex themes and issues, and on knowledge and use of the aspects of language that enable students to present and critically analyse ‘different perspectives on complex themes and issues’.

Victorian Essential Learning Standards CSF II learning outcomes

Speaking and listening

At Level 6, students analyse critically the relationship between texts, contexts, speakers and listeners in a range of situations. When engaged in discussion, they compare ideas, build on others’ ideas, provide and justify other points of view, and reach conclusions that take account of aspects of an issue. In their presentations, they make effective use of the structures and features of spoken language to deal with complex subject matter in a range of situations.

They draw on a range of strategies to listen to and present spoken texts, including note-taking, combining spoken and visual texts, and presenting complex issues or information imaginatively to interest an audience.

 

Speaking and listening

Texts

6.1 Listen to and produce a range of spoken texts to examine different perspectives on complex themes and issues.

Contextual understanding

6.2 Compare and contrast the use of language in spoken texts that present different perspectives on complex themes and issues.

Linguistic structures and features

6.3 Identify and control the linguistic structures and features of a range of spoken texts to present complex themes and issues.

Strategies

6.4 Evaluate the strategies used by others to enhance presentation of spoken texts and select and use them appropriately.

 


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